HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Wed, 02 Dec 2020 13:56:15 GMT 老司机影视

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Developer:Dontnod Entertainment, Square Enix

Show MoreHide

受此启发,研究者和科学家们都致力于研发体积小却意义重大的科技成果。
制造业PMI降至5个月以来的最低水平,是由于受访企业表示,更严格的环保政策限制了业务扩张。这些政策旨在遏制每年冬天笼罩中国大部分地区的有毒烟雾。
汤姆?汉考克(Tom Hancock)上海补充报道

大多数成功的创业者都遵循类似的模式,并且具备类似的基本特质。无数在线文章和图书宣称掌握了商业成功的秘诀,但事实上其中大多数都可以归结为几个相同的要点。
如果将其切成八片,每片的价值就是250美元,相当于每一口大约值50美元。
然而,国家也很警惕网络金融的快速发展,该领域基本不受监管,发生系统性危机的风险可能会很高。据摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)和中国研究机构“网贷之家”的调查显示,自2007年以来,中国有370家P2P贷款平台倒闭,其中270家是在过去的一年中倒闭的。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

天津多家银行反馈:并未降低房贷利率

“…did a song and dance routine in hopes of getting the job.”
According to the annual Global Trade Protection Report, companies in the US launched 43 anti-dumping cases in 2015 and a further 22 anti-subsidy investigations aimed at securing countervailing duties. The US took the lead in both areas, overtaking India and Brazil, which launched the most cases in 2014 and 2013.
尽管有少数人坚持这种说法,但绝大多数研究气候的科学家表示,地球正在经历一个长期变暖的趋势,这种趋势给人类带来深刻的威胁,而且几乎完全是由人类活动造成的。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

积极稳妥去杠杆。
House prices in China continue to fall as investors shift focus from the property market into equities.
vt. 帮助,使 ... 容易,促进

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Tracey and Viv Williams, a British couple, dressed as the green cartoon ogres from Shrek at their wedding held recently. Tracy, 33, made a lovely Princess Fion
  • 南京2020年蓝天率要达72% 新型环保涂料将得到重用
  • Best Companies rank: 59
  • 重庆首例农民工住房公积金缴存试点调查
  • 二线楼市大爆发:散户像当年买股票一样买房子
  • 中国疾病预防控制中心主任韩孟杰表示:“有过性经历的大学生安全套的使用率还不到40%。”
    Obama's victory in the hotly contested swing state of Ohio - as projected by TV networks - put him over the top in the fight for the 270 electoral votes needed to clinch the White House and ended Romney's hopes of pulling off a string of swing-state upsets。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 北京离职后如何提取住房公积金, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

35城住宅库存54个月来首降 强化房价看涨预期

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

众多家居企业业绩亮眼 预计下半年家具市场向好

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 2017年,人们指责大型科技公司太过强大、利用自身的规模主宰市场,而且不够关注他们所创造的工具如何被用来做恶。
    minutes
  • 这也是精算师高居美国最佳工作榜首的原因之一。这是求职网站CareerCast.com最新调查结果,调查报告于周二发布。生物医学工程师排名第二位,2012年高居榜首的软件工程师如今排名第三。排名垫底的工作包括现役军人、伐木工人和报社记者。
    Volatility in currency markets is also likely to be a factor for agricultural commodity prices in the next 12 months, with the euro likely to depreciate as a result of French, Dutch and German elections, Rabobank reckons.
    007系列电影荣誉主题曲之一:路易斯·阿姆斯特朗--《我们拥有世界上的所有时间》
    纳粹势力席卷西欧,一场入侵迫在眉睫,然而一方面民众毫无准备,一方面国王还心存怀疑,认为王位陷入了自己党派设下的阴谋之中。丘吉尔必须承受至暗时刻,团结全国,改写世界的历史进程。
    We will continue to reform fiscal and tax systems.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 李克强:4月1日就要减增值税 5月1日就要降社保费率
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 云南LED市场80%照明工程欠款 资金链断裂

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

This year they looked at the use of negative strategies such as anger or stonewalling responses to conflict, and found that these predicted health-related changes over time in specific ways.
但随着美国接近实现充分就业,随着通胀向目标水平趋近,“你可以看到收紧政策是有道理的,”他说,“不需要很多就足以改变整个平衡”。
The Incredible Jessica James
The former Miss World Priyanka Chopra stands 9th on the world's most beautiful women of 2015 list. She is an Indian film actress and singer. She is one of Bollywood's highest-paid actresses and one of the most popular and high-profile celebrities in India. She has received numerous accolades, including a National Film Award for Best Actress and Filmfare Awards in four categories.
John Williams's classic score still raises goosebumps over 40 years after this summer blockbuster hit theaters. Jaws preys on our primal fear of the unknown in deep waters, showing a small beach town ravaged by a series of attacks from a single killer shark. In recent years, environmentalists have stressed the generally nonthreatening nature of sharks, which kill an average of just eight swimmers each year.
The end of November is here. As I wrote Monday, recent history suggests nine teams have pretty much already been knocked out of playoff contention. Yet, none of them are straight-up tanking.
4.闻疾病的鼻子

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Doing more to unleash the potential of domestic demand
  • 广州:毕业季租房多了租金涨了
  • adv.
    All three of the big worldwide financial bubbles that have blow up in the last three decades have 'been fueled by the Fed keeping policy rates below the nominal growth rate of the economy far too long, ' says global strategist Kit Juckes of the French bank Societe Generale.
  • 买婚房却买到凶宅 房屋死过人房东却假装不知情
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • The mainstream remains the awkwardly named sector of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games, or MMORPGs. In October, six out of the 10 most popular online games in China are MMORPG games, according to the report. World of Warcraft by Activision Blizzard, Inc. (ATVI) still tops the list with the most registered players and peak simultaneous online users. But the current government regulatory fighting over its Chinese license, held by Netease.com Inc. (NTES), may yet have a negative impact on the game, according to the report.
    1995年,荷兰维和部队未能阻止波黑塞族军队在位于波黑东部的斯雷布雷尼察杀害8000名穆斯林男子和男孩。
  • China’s bid to close its own Asia-Pac deal
    她的设备使用了碳纳米管来检测铅的存在。据报道,数千个美国供水系统都有铅污染的问题。
  • The statement said: "We sincerely apologize to Moonlight, La La Land, Warren Beatty, Faye Dunaway, and Oscar viewers for the error that was made during the award announcement for Best Picture."
    "Hiring a veteran can be one of the best decisions any of us can make, and Wal-Mart is proud that we have hired more than 26,000 since we announced our Welcome Home Commitment on Memorial Day," Simon told Fortune. "Veterans have a strong record of performance under pressure and passion for service, which makes our pledge to hire, learn from, and support them easy."
  • mortality
    过去10年,全球最具价值品牌100强的品牌价值增长一倍多,增幅达到133%。品牌价值是根据收入和盈利能力等财务指标,结合消费者品牌认知调查计算的。
    8qFVdkcH4D(jz2U^
  • 此外,排名前列的城市的“成本”、“文化与居民生活”两项指标普遍不高。在满足民众需求、并提供高质量生活方面,中国的“机遇城市”仍然面临挑战。
    预计新一代iPhone中,将至少有一款采用人脸识别技术,这种图像捕捉技术能够感知深度,并追踪人脸及表情。随着苹果与Facebook和Snapchat等公司争夺用户的关注度,新一代iPhone将增加一系列包括猴子和机器人的新表情符号,其动画表情能够反映iPhone用户的脸。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 下半年全球油漆涂料业仍维持不平衡状态 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

存贷款基准利率今起下调 未来几月是最佳购房期

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

“十三五”节能减排方案:出台涂料VOCs限值强制环保标准

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

个税优惠政策衔接方案出炉:年终奖个税优惠可再用3年

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

5月北京新房入市速度加快 7天6项目共计4196套房源获销许

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 联系方式:Staci Donegan and Peter Westley, Celia Dunn Sotheby’s International Realty, (912) 247-2052 / (912) 660-5169; celiadunnsir.com
  • n. 全体船员,全体乘务员,(一组)工作人员
  • 房价还能涨多久:部分地区已完全丧失投资价值

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Big Little Lies
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 24 August
    They were discovered in the modern-day Jiangsu Province near Shanghai inside the ancient tombs belonging to the rich and powerful.
    Do you tend to hide your feelings from others?
  • That put outbound investment for October at $8.3bn, according to FT calculations based on official data, for a year-on-year fall of 26.5 per cent.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • “我想不出还有哪家公司抵挡住了对冲基金丛林中两头最凶猛的猛兽的攻击,”加州公务员退休基金的辛普森说,“他很酷,很冷静,泰然自若,是‘保持冷静,继续前进(Keep calm and carry on)’这句话在企业界的模范体现。”
  • 中国建材行业一周大事记(12.14-12.18)
  • "Everywhere I go business owners are seeing an increase in demand," said Gus Faucher, senior economist at PNC Financial Services. "Businesses will have to raise wages to attract or maintain workers."

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 从智能家居的“痛点”,看中国制造的升级大戏
  • Household substance abuse
  • 家居电商模式路漫漫 “网购家具”消费体验参差不齐
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

类住宅受限 商地出让回归本源

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 电商并非“黄金地” LED企业做好取舍是关键
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 新华社评论员:坚定不移推进生态文明建设
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

TAXES: Approximately $18,036 a year

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

看起来,数据造假会在官方层面得到宽容。公布真实数据会把你送上法院的被告席。如果还有更多这类情况发生,公众不再信任官方统计数据将是正确的。
Reality Competition Program: “The Voice” (NBC)
10. The difference between a lie and a promise is that the believer of a lie is the listener and the believer of a promise is the speaker.
包括中国移动、阿里巴巴和腾讯的16家中国企业进入了该榜单的前100名。
The exchanges revealed there is little major difference between the two in term of their approach to security and foreign affairs. On Iran both vowed it will not be allowed to have nuclear weapons. Rommey said he would introduce more stringent sanctions; Obama said they were already as stringent as they could possibly be.
port部分+ion→一部分→部分,一般
据Birinyi Associates的数据,今年迄今为止,各家公司已经宣布了376项股票回购计划,总额高达2,610亿美元。这个数字与2012年相比增长了近72%,但与回购创下纪录的2013年相比,略微有所回落。
adj. 稳定的,安定的,可靠的
Zhou Qunfei from Lens Technology, the major touchscreen maker, ranks third on the list with a net worth of 45 billion yuan.
n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

专家:本轮房价周期已见顶 部分城市将回调

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 今年3月,福特以16亿美元将沃尔沃卖给中国吉利汽车,从此退出豪华汽车市场。虽然这是一个巨大损失——福特11年前购买沃尔沃这家瑞典汽车制造商花了60亿美元——但2009年福特实现了27亿美元的利润,是2005年以来首次盈利。受惠于“旧车换现金”计划(更不要说丰田的加速器问题了),今年2月福特重新占据了美国最大汽车制造商的宝座。这也是为什么福特首席执行官阿兰?穆拉里能够将目光投向国外,如印度这样的大市场,在印度推出了紧凑车型Figo。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • associate
  • 智能制造背景下 中国家电强大起来了吗?
  • Margot Wallstrom
  • 吴长江德豪1.3亿股遭冻结
  • 该研究基于数亿个安全问题的答案以及数百万条恢复账号登录的请求。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 乡村振兴对城市居民是重要利好
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 1. “暂时没有名字的泡沫”引发30年来的最大规模崩盘
  • Andy Murray's US Open victory and Olympic gold medal helped him to become the most searched-for British Olympian.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

家具行业欲加快生产效率 实现自动化生产

View All Footnotes